Bakhtin and his circle began meeting in the Belorussian towns of Nevel and Vitebsk in before moving to Leningrad in Their group meetings were terminated due to the arrest of many of the group in From this time until his death inBakhtin continued to work on the topics which had occupied his group, living in internal exile first in Kustanai Kazakhstan,Savelovo about km from Moscow,Saransk Mordovia,and finally moving in to Moscow, where he died at the age of eighty.
Egyptian hieroglyphs with cartouches for the name " Ramesses II ", from the Luxor TempleNew Kingdom The history of literature follows closely the development of civilization. It did contain at least one feature of poetry left-justified linesbut the style of writing precludes the detection of certain other identifying features.
This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message Different historical periods are reflected in literature.
National and tribal sagas, accounts of the origin of the world and of customs, and myths which sometimes carry moral or spiritual messages predominate in the pre-urban eras. The epics of Homerdating from the early to middle Iron ageand the great Indian epics of a slightly later period, have more evidence of deliberate literary authorship, surviving like the older myths through oral tradition for long periods before being written down.
The plot is for more than just entertainment purposes; within it lies information about economics, psychology, science, religions, politics, cultures, and social depth.
Studying and analyzing literature becomes very important in terms of learning about our[ who? Through the study of past literature we[ who? This can even help us to understand references made in more modern literature because authors often make references to Greek mythology and other old religious texts or historical moments.
Not only is there literature written on each of the aforementioned topics themselves, and how they have evolved throughout history like a book about the history of economics or a book about evolution and science, for example but one can also learn about these things in fictional works.
Canto I"  and expresses his opinions through his character Childe Harold. Through literature we are able to continuously uncover new information about history.
It is easy to see how all academic fields have roots in literature. Eventually everything was written down, from things like home remedies and cures for illness, or how to build shelter to traditions and religious practices.
From there people were able to study literature, improve on ideas, further our knowledge, and academic fields such as the medical field or trades could be started. In much the same way as the literature that we study today continue to be updated as we[ who?
As a more urban culture developed, academies provided a means of transmission for speculative and philosophical literature in early civilizations, resulting in the prevalence of literature in Ancient ChinaAncient IndiaPersia and Ancient Greece and Rome.
Many works of earlier periods, even in narrative form, had a covert moral or didactic purpose, such as the Sanskrit Panchatantra or the Metamorphoses of Ovid.
Drama and satire also developed as urban culture provided a larger public audience, and later readership, for literary production. Lyric poetry as opposed to epic poetry was often the speciality of courts and aristocratic circles, particularly in East Asia where songs were collected by the Chinese aristocracy as poems, the most notable being the Shijing or Book of Songs.
Over a long period, the poetry of popular pre-literate balladry and song interpenetrated and eventually influenced poetry in the literary medium. In ancient China, early literature was primarily focused on philosophy, historiographymilitary scienceagriculture, and poetry. The most important of these include the Classics of Confucianismof Daoismof Mohismof Legalismas well as works of military science e.
Ancient Chinese literature had a heavy emphasis on historiography, with often very detailed court records. In ancient India, literature originated from stories that were originally orally transmitted.
Early genres included dramafablessutras and epic poetry. The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. The Samhitas vedic collections date to roughly — BCE, and the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c. In ancient Greece, the epics of Homerwho wrote the Iliad and the Odysseyand Hesiodwho wrote Works and Days and Theogonyare some of the earliest, and most influential, of Ancient Greek literature.
Classical Greek genres included philosophy, poetryhistoriography, comedies and dramas. Plato and Aristotle authored philosophical texts that are the foundation of Western philosophySappho and Pindar were influential lyric poetsand Herodotus and Thucydides were early Greek historians.
Although drama was popular in Ancient Greece, of the hundreds of tragedies written and performed during the classical ageonly a limited number of plays by three authors still exist: AeschylusSophoclesand Euripides. The plays of Aristophanes provide the only real examples of a genre of comic drama known as Old Comedythe earliest form of Greek Comedy, and are in fact used to define the genre.
Controversial, religious, political and instructional literature proliferated during the Renaissance as a result of the invention of printing, while the mediaeval romance developed into a more character-based and psychological form of narrative, the novelof which early and important examples are the Chinese Monkey and the German Faust books.
In the Age of Reason philosophical tracts and speculations on history and human nature integrated literature with social and political developments. The inevitable reaction was the explosion of Romanticism in the later 18th century which reclaimed the imaginative and fantastical bias of old romances and folk-literature and asserted the primacy of individual experience and emotion.
But as the 19th century went on, European fiction evolved towards realism and naturalismthe meticulous documentation of real life and social trends.
Much of the output of naturalism was implicitly polemical, and influenced social and political change, but 20th century fiction and drama moved back towards the subjective, emphasizing unconscious motivations and social and environmental pressures on the individual.
Writers such as ProustEliotJoyceKafka and Pirandello exemplify the trend of documenting internal rather than external realities. Genre fiction also showed it could question reality in its 20th century forms, in spite of its fixed formulas, through the enquiries of the skeptical detective and the alternative realities of science fiction.
The separation of "mainstream" and "genre" forms including journalism continued to blur during the period up to our own times.In literature, Romanticism found recurrent themes in the evocation or criticism of the past, the cult of "sensibility" with its emphasis on women and children, the isolation of the artist or narrator, and respect for leslutinsduphoenix.comrmore, several romantic authors, such as Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne, based their writings on the supernatural/occult and human psychology.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. Collected Works: Volume 3. Essays on Art and Literature, The reflections on art and literature which Goethe produced throughout his life are the rewarding documents of a mind of extraordinary awareness and perception.
They are the premise and corollary of.
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