By Mark Jurkowitz and Amy Mitchell Even at a time of fragmenting media use, television remains the dominant way that Americans get news at home, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of Nielsen data. And while the largest audiences tune into local and network broadcast news, it is national cable news that commands the most attention from its viewers. Almost three out of four U.
Vero Beach, FL A survey of over participants liked actresses more as they aged than when they were young.
Further, the study participants characterized the actresses as more feminine as they aged than when they were young. Research on aging and gender shows that a broader range of images exists in the real world than in the "reel world. Theories on women and aging may be used to explain the image or archetype of the "cruel" older woman.
One common theory has long suggested that women become more androgynous as they get older; that is, in addition to their feminine "communal" characteristics, they take on traditionally masculine, "agentic" characteristics such as decisiveness, assertiveness, and aggressiveness e.
It is common for people to perceive such masculine traits, when they are demonstrated by women, as bitchiness or cruelty.
Hollywood uses the villainous archetype to its advantage, but it does not seem interested in challenging the stereotype by writing roles or casting older actresses in more positive ways. Although this archetype may be potent, people may not assign it often to people they know.
Recent research indicates that women in real life are not typically perceived by others as especially agentic: However, older women have been perceived as less sexual than older men in our culture for centuries Sherman, The typical roles for older women are similar in television and film.
They include the good wife, the contented homemaker, the harpy, the matriarch, and the bitch Meehan,pp. The actresses playing these roles were the lucky ones.
Northcott found that older female roles were almost non-existent on television in the s with only 1. In examining data from FallSignorielli indicated no changes in the presentation of women and aging.
McCormick asserted that Hollywood has a "wrinkled ceiling" for women, but not for men p. Men retain their attractiveness and competence as they age, whereas women lose their attractiveness and become incompetent.
Signorielli and Bacue reported a similar trend in their study of television roles from to p. Griffin referred to the negative portrayal of aging women as "the politics of aging" p. Signorielli helped explain why so few older women are cast in television roles. Most scripts, she claimed, emphasize home, family, marriage, or romance for women, meaning most of the roles are for women young enough to be perceived as romantically attractive to the male leads and the audience p.
By extension, as women age, and lose their fertility and sexual desirability, they are presented as less feminine, more unhappy, less attractive, and as having colder personalities p. It further follows, argued Bazzini, et al.Representations of Race in Television Commercials: A Content Analysis of Prime-Time Advertising.
Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 47 (4), Ramasubramanian, S. (). Since the average hour of prime-time broadcast television contains about 43 minutes of non- commercial programming, one instance of objectionable content occurs every minutes of non-commercial airtime, on average.
Social Psychology Content Analysis Television Character Male Counterpart Prime Time These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
An analysis of health content in popular prime time television programs. The Kaiser Family Foundation and the USC Annenberg Norman Lear Center’s Hollywood, Health & Society. Recommended Citation.
O'Briend, Meghan L., "Audience Engagement with Mother-Daughter Relationships in Prime-Time Television of the 21st Century: A Qualitative Analysis of Interpretation, Sensemaking, and Perceived Effects" (). This content analysis examines portrayals of women in prime-time promotional announcements broadcast on five television networks (ABC, NBC, CBS, FOX, and UPN) during one week in