Slavery in America began in the early 17th Century and continued to be practiced for the next years by the colonies and states. Slaves, mostly from Africa, worked in the production of tobacco crops and later, cotton.
Although conflicts are not always violent, those that have plagued West Africa at community, state and regional levels have been characterized by violence Afisi While violent conflicts are declining in the sub-region, recent insurgencies in the Sahel region affecting the West African countries of Mali, Niger and Mauritania sends alarming signals of the possible re-surfacing of internal and regional violent conflicts.
More critical to add is the low intensity conflicts surging within notably stable countries such as the Casamance conflict in Senegal, the intermittent Dagbon chieftaincy crisis in Ghana and the Niger Delta conflict in Nigeria to name a few Olonisakin Ending violent conflicts in West Africa remains one of the main challenges of the sub-region.
This is possibly attributed to the sudden shift from inter-state to intra-state conflicts that characterized most part of the late s through to the 21st century posing a new challenge of intra-state peace consolidation and conflict prevention.
Despite these efforts which have achieved some appreciable success, the cradle of peace and stability in the sub-region remains brittle and the possibility of a resurgence of seemingly ended conflicts is high.
These few examples raise questions on the capacity and mechanisms used to resolve conflicts in West Africa and the effectiveness of these mechanisms to ensure sustainable peace in the sub-region.
Against this background, the author attempts to support discourses on violent conflicts and civil strife in West Africa by first giving an overview of violent conflicts and civil strife in the sub-region; identifying and expatiating on the causes of these conflicts; elaborate on existing initiatives; identifying challenges impeding efforts towards ending conflicts in the sub-region; and finally concluding with prospects for future conflict resolution.
Conceptualizing Conflicts and War Ending in West Africa The conceptualization of conflicts and war ending is dynamic and constantly evolving particularly in the post-cold war era.
With the paradigmatic shift from inter-state to intra-state conflicts, many literatures have different definitions and concepts of conflict and its resolution. To Bernard Mayer conflicts can be explained through a three-dimensional lens.
For the purposes of this article, conflict could be seen as a violent expression of disagreements and frustration often arising from unmet needs and aspirations. As indicated earlier, while conflicts are not always violent, the ones that have affected West Africa have been characterized by violence and brutality.
While the conceptualization of low intensity conflicts LIC remains unclear, this article refers to LIC as prolonged, subtle yet staid altercations between different groups often with socio-economic, political and military intentions. LIC has the potential of erupting into full-blown conflict if unresolved.
Invariably, conflicts in West Africa have been notably fuelled by multiple interrelated causal factors including poverty, human rights violations, bad governance and corruption, ethnic marginalization and small arms proliferation Fithen ; Voz di Paz and Interpeace ; Vinck et al ; Keili While the above causes persist, some of the conflicts that have occurred in the sub-region have been linked to certain triggers which often ignite the uprisings.
Ending war or conflicts especially in West Africa has been quite a challenge due to its complex multi-causal factors, multiple actors and the nature of the conflict; often contributing to prolonging the conflict. Furthermore, Fearon explained that the latter tends to be protracted because the belligerent groups expect to gain military supremacy or use violence to acquire favourable agreements Fearon While the former have often been short-lived eg.
Mali and Guinea-Bissau coups inthe latter however have been protracted eg. Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Northern Mali. Violent Conflicts and Civil Strife in West Africa West Africa has been grappling with violent conflicts and civil strife for decades, however, the periods between the s and the s leading to the new millennium presented more violent and protracted conflicts which destabilized many of its economies Aning and Bah ; UNSC Report Nevertheless, this seeming peace was short-lived as longstanding and simmering ethnic tensions, corruption, subjugation and abject poverty of the people thrust the country back into a second civil war in ; two years after Taylor was elected into office as president Kieh and Klay By the end of the second civil war, there were reported high cases of rape and torture, high death rates, destruction of basic infrastructure and services, malnutrition and about 21, child soldiers to disarm and demobilize Vinck et al Subsequently, inthe country reportedly ranked of countries in the Human Development Index, making it one of the poorest countries in the world Vinck et al Clashes between the Ghaddafi and Taylor supported RUF and the incumbent resulted in over a decade long violent conflict which was officially declared over in February The conflict, arising from corruption, bad governance, social injustice, and breakdown of democratic institutions resulted in the killing of 50, people, and the destruction of infrastructure as well as other pertinent social services Kargbo The month conflict which ended on 7 Mayled by Brigadier Ansumane Mane, was supposedly caused by weapon trafficking in neighboring Senegal for the Casamance independence movement, corruption and human rights abuse.
Like all violent conflicts, casualties were recorded as it claimed the lives of thousands and entrenched poverty in the country Voz di Paz and Interpeace Deeply rooted in ethnic-religious divisions and identity aggravated by politics of exclusion, the country erupted into full-fledged civil strife in September Ogwang With three years of relative peace in the country, Ivoirians were ready to take to the polls in Novembera critical election which was anticipated to consolidate the peace the country had enjoyed and unify its stratified population.
Much to their chagrin, the country nearly relapsed back into a violent civil war after the disputed elections led to a violent confrontation between loyalists of incumbent Laurent Gbagbo and main opposition Alassane Ouattara Ogwang The following five-month battle led to the death of over people and the displacement of many.
Since its emergence inthe Boko Haram insurgency has taken many lives, displaced several thousand and destroyed state property Walker The Niger Delta conflict has led to several kidnapping of expatriates, casualties and the increased use of sophisticated weaponry in the region by militant groups such as the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta MEND thereby heightening insecurity within the country and across the sub-region Ejibunu Causes of Conflicts in West Africa The root of violent conflicts and civil strife in West Africa is linked to several complex factors.
The roots of conflict in West Africa are much deeper and complex, and are embedded in the interplay of historical factors, socio-economic crisis, legacies of authoritarianism and the politics of exclusion, international forces, and local struggles Obi Admittedly, while the aforementioned constitute the broader causal factors, embedded within and related to them are bad governance and corruption, human rights violations, poverty, ethnic marginalization and small arms and light weapons proliferation among otherswhich continue to serve as triggers and drivers of violent conflicts in the sub-region.Was$slavery$the$most$important$cause$of$the$Civil$War?$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ leslutinsduphoenix.com?action=webquest_1$ $ $ Was$slavery$the$most$important$.
The argument over whether slavery was the primary cause of the Civil War is one of the most controversial topics in American history. It is a subject that has been debated since the war first began in Evidence That Slavery Was the Cause of the Civil War.
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If you wish to start a new discussion or revive an old one, please do so on the current talk page. Why are most prices of items in shops in most of the western world (Europe and North America at least) only just below a round amount?
For example, instead of 1, instead of 2, instead of 10, instead of 25, and so on? Americans were divided on such volatile issues as slavery, reform and sectionalism that ultimately led to the Civil War.
Emerging from this cauldron of change came the voice of a new nation - a nation with views and ideals all its own. Facts, information and articles about Slavery In America, one of the causes of the civil war Slavery In America summary: Slavery in America began in the early 17th Century and continued to be practiced for the next years by the colonies and states.