The cranium and its constituents blood, CSF, and brain tissue create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. These buffers respond to increases in volume of the remaining intracranial constituents. For example, an increase in lesion volume e. One of the most damaging aspects of brain trauma and other conditions, directly correlated with poor outcome, is an elevated intracranial pressure.
More information 1 Guidance The following guidance is based on the best available evidence. The full guideline gives details of the methods and the evidence used to develop the guidance.
The recommendations in this section cover the rapid diagnosis of people who have had sudden onset of symptoms that are indicative of stroke and TIA. How to identify risk of subsequent stroke in people who have had a TIA is also covered.
This section contains recommendations about which people with suspected TIA need brain imaging and the type of imaging that is most helpful. Some people who have had a stroke or TIA have narrowing of the carotid artery that may require surgical intervention.
Carotid imaging is required to define the extent of carotid artery narrowing. The use of carotid stenting was also reviewed by the GDG. However, no evidence for early carotid stenting was found on which the GDG felt they could base a recommendation.
For more information, see chapter 6 of the full guideline. This section contains recommendations about urgent pharmacological treatment in people with acute stroke.
People being discharged before 2 weeks can be started on long-term treatment earlier. People with acute venous stroke 1. People with stroke associated with arterial dissection 1.
People with acute ischaemic stroke associated with antiphospholipid syndrome 1. Reversal of anticoagulation treatment in people with haemorrhagic stroke 1.
This section contains recommendations on oxygen supplementation, maintenance of normoglycaemia, and acute blood pressure manipulation. The routine use of supplemental oxygen is not recommended in people with acute stroke who are not hypoxic.
Critical care and emergency departments should have a protocol for such management[ 25 ].Intracranial tumors are the most common solid malignancy in pediatrics, with the majority found in the posterior fossa. In these patients, presenting symptoms and signs are frequently related to intracranial hypertension due to obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow.
Specific cranial nerve palsies and ataxia may also be presenting signs, with or without intracranial hypertension.
Adelson PD, Bratton SL, Carney NA, et al.: Guidelines for the acute medical management of severe traumatic brain injury in infants, children, and adolescents. Chapter 5. Indications for intracranial pressure monitoring in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
When caring for a patient with acute coronary syndrome who has returned to the coronary care unit after having angioplasty with stent placement, the nurse obtains the following assessment data. Which data indicate the need for immediate action by the nurse?
Chapter Nursing Care of Patients With Central Nervous System Disorders Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1.
The nurse is caring for a patient brought to the emergency department after an automobile accident. The patient is fully conscious. For what early signs of increased intracranial . Chapter Nursing Management: Acute Intracranial Problems Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.
Many of the principles of nursing management of the patient with a stroke are appropriate. and impaired physical mobility.
• Depending on the location of the pathologic condition. tumor cell heterogeneity. the patient is usually transferred for acute rehabilitation management to prepare the patient for reentry into the community.