A precursor to intimacy. Erikson and Psychobiography, Psychobiography and Erikson.
Treatment of adolescents with alcohol use problems can be as successful as in adults, but the success often is short-lived, with most treated adolescents relapsing within a few months. To date, studies assessing adolescent alcohol treatment rarely have investigated the association between developmental stage and outcome.
In addition, even experts do not fully agree on the developmentally appropriate outcomes that should be evaluated in adolescent treatment studies. Research methods and variables used to assess the outcome of adolescent alcohol treatment often rely on those used in treatment studies of adults.
Studies using concepts from developmental science are needed to determine how individual characteristics, various contextual influences e. Knowledge gained in studies directly examining developmental factors should help in the design of more effective treatment programs with lower relapse rates.
Underage drinking; adolescent; treatment method; treatment outcome; psychological development; clinical trials; literature review As the preceding articles in this journal issue have shown, alcohol use and abuse among adolescents is a significant public health problem.
Accordingly, many adolescents require treatment for drinking problems. Moreover, different treatment approaches do not appear to differ from each other in their likelihood to produce successful outcomes Brown et al.
Additional studies, however, have indicated that adolescent treatment successes may be short-lived because about half of all teenagers treated for AOD use problems relapse within 3 months of treatment completion and two-thirds relapse within 6 months Brown et al.
To reduce these relapse rates and the resulting burden on the individual patient, his or her family, and society, it is important to determine the reasons underlying this limited treatment success and to develop strategies to improve long-term treatment outcomes.
One reason for this limited treatment success may be that treatment programs do not direct enough attention to developmental issues that potentially influence response to treatment. Adolescence is a period of enormous emotional, psychological, physiological, and social changes; accordingly, the treatment needs and responses of an adolescent at an earlier developmental stage can differ vastly from those of a teenager at a later developmental stage.
Yet researchers currently know almost nothing about how developmental issues may influence treatment responses among adolescents with AOD problems. A better understanding of the possible associations between developmental stage and treatment response among alcohol-abusing teenagers is vital for several reasons, including: The personal and environmental factors that may influence treatment response likely are similar to the ones that affect treatment outcome in adults; however, the extent of these effects and the mechanisms through which they act may depend on developmental stage Ramo et al.
The developmental processes and transitions that occur during adolescence e. Simultaneously, these variations also influence the processes through which adolescents change their behaviors e. Therefore, over the past two decades, researchers and clinicians have begun to take such developmental issues into account when treating adolescents with alcohol-related problems.
It now is recognized that adolescents with alcohol problems differ distinctly from their adult counterparts and that treatment design and implementation need to take these differences into consideration to improve treatment effectiveness and reduce high relapse rates Winters One promising strategy to achieve this goal may be to further adapt treatment approaches to the different developmental stages of patients i.
Despite some progress in this area, however, there still persists a shortage of effective, evidence-based interventions to treat AOD use disorders among adolescents Cornelius Another suggested strategy has been to promote community- and school-based interventions, which might have two beneficial effects.
First, these approaches may be more developmentally appropriate for adolescents than traditional clinic-based treatments Brown et al.
Second, they also may be able to address a second major problem in the treatment of adolescents with AOD problems—namely, that the vast majority of adolescents with such problems receive no treatment at all.
In fact, some studies have estimated that only 10 percent of adolescents with AOD use problems receive any treatment Clark et al. These adolescents in particular may be easier to reach with school- or community-based interventions than with clinic-based programs.
For these reasons, interest in developmental issues that may affect treatment effectiveness among adolescents and in the design of developmentally appropriate treatment approaches has increased considerably in recent years. This article reviews the extent to which developmental stage has been considered in the existing literature on treatment of adolescents with AOD use problems.
It also introduces some of the developmental issues and processes that most likely affect the outcome of adolescents receiving treatment for AOD use problems and discusses how concepts and methods from applied developmental science can be integrated directly into research on adolescent AOD treatment outcome.
Each of the selected studies was evaluated with respect to the following: What age-groups were included in the study? The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism NIAAA Underage Drinking Research Initiative classifies adolescents in three age-groups—less than 10 years of age, 10—15 years of age, and 16—20 years of age—to organize the knowledge base on alcohol use and its consequences among adolescents; these three categories also were used to analyze the clinical trials identified in this literature review.
What other information on the developmental level of the study participants was provided that could be related to treatment effects? The literature review found that even in the best of cases, the only information provided on the developmental level was the mean age of the study participants, the standard deviation SD from the mean, and the age range.
Moreover, virtually no studies directly examined how age affects treatment response.
Age Range of Adolescents in the Studies Overall, the review of the literature found that older teenagers i. For example, in a study by Kelly and colleaguesapproximately 84 percent of the participants were ages 15 or older; in a study by Tait and colleagues86 percent of participants were ages 15 or older; and in a study by Winters and colleagues60 percent were ages 16 and older.2 Developmental Psychology and You difﬁcult or impossible to alter someone once he or she has been formed in a particu-lar way: But once a child’s character has been spoiled by bad handling, which can be done in a.
Abstract. One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of . The depth and variety of clinical experiences must be adequate; 2. must have clinical experiences with children and adolescents for the development of conceptual understanding and beginning clinical skills in major treatment modalities, which include brief and longterm individual therapy, family therapy, group therapy, crisis intervention, supportive therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral .
Developmental Psychology Has Been Able to Contribute to Improving Children’s Lives the amount of water has changed.
Discuss with reference to research evidence. Name Erikson's stage that states "Middle-aged adults contribute to the next generation through meaningful work, creative activities, and/or raising a family, or they stagnate." The belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively alter their social context.
The Study of Life Span Developmental Psychology. Developmental psychology, a broad area of study exploring the development of humans over time, involves the examination of the ways people develop over the course of their lifespan as well as the.