Introduction to the Lithosphere Summary of the Chapter All landforms are composed of rocks or their weathered by products. Three main types of rocks can be identified on the Earth's surface: The rock cycle is a model that describes how various geological processes create, modify and influence rocks. The rock cycle suggests that all rocks originated from magma.
It was used again in in a work entitled Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae: The first German use, Biologie, was in a translation of Linnaeus' work. The term came into its modern usage with the six-volume treatise Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur —22 by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranuswho announced: The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology [Biologie] or the doctrine of life [Lebenslehre].
Although modern biology is a relatively recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of MesopotamiaEgyptthe Indian subcontinentand China.
However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often Geology ch 1 study guide back to ancient Greece. Especially important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, and later more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life.
Aristotle's successor at the LyceumTheophrastuswrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences, even into the Middle Ages.
Medicine was especially well studied by Islamic scholars working in Greek philosopher traditions, while natural history drew heavily on Aristotelian thought, especially in upholding a fixed hierarchy of life. Biology began to quickly develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoek 's dramatic improvement of the microscope.
It was then that scholars discovered spermatozoabacteriainfusoria and the diversity of microscopic life. Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining.
In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell.
Then, inSchleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that 1 the basic unit of organisms is the cell and 2 that individual cells have all the characteristics of lifealthough they opposed the idea that 3 all cells come from the division of other cells.
Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchowhowever, by the s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory. Carl Linnaeus published a basic taxonomy for the natural world in variations of which have been in use ever sinceand in the s introduced scientific names for all his species.
Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought ; his work influenced the evolutionary theories of both Lamarck and Darwin.
Lamarck believed that these acquired traits could then be passed on to the animal's offspring, who would further develop and perfect them. The discovery of the physical representation of heredity came along with evolutionary principles and population genetics.
In the s and early s, experiments pointed to DNA as the component of chromosomes that held the trait-carrying units that had become known as genes. A focus on new kinds of model organisms such as viruses and bacteriaalong with the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA inmarked the transition to the era of molecular genetics.
From the s to present times, biology has been vastly extended in the molecular domain. Finally, the Human Genome Project was launched in with the goal of mapping the general human genome.
This project was essentially completed in with further analysis still being published. The Human Genome Project was the first step in a globalized effort to incorporate accumulated knowledge of biology into a functional, molecular definition of the human body and the bodies of other organisms.
Foundations of modern biology Cell theory Human cancer cells with nuclei specifically the DNA stained blue. The central and rightmost cell are in interphaseso the entire nuclei are labeled.
The cell on the left is going through mitosis and its DNA has condensed. Cell theory Cell theory states that the cell is the fundamental unit of lifethat all living things are composed of one or more cells, and that all cells arise from pre-existing cells through cell division.
In multicellular organismsevery cell in the organism's body derives ultimately from a single cell in a fertilized egg. The cell is also considered to be the basic unit in many pathological processes. Finally, cells contain hereditary information DNAwhich is passed from cell to cell during cell division.
Research into the origin of life, abiogenesisamounts to an attempt to discover the origin of the first cells. Evolution A central organizing concept in biology is that life changes and develops through evolution, and that all life-forms known have a common origin.
The theory of evolution postulates that all organisms on the Earthboth living and extinct, have descended from a common ancestor or an ancestral gene pool. This universal common ancestor of all organisms is believed to have appeared about 3.(1). Discuss in detail the formation of sedimentary rocks.
Also, include in your answer information concerning their composition, lithification, and naming. Week 1 Introduction to Geology Formation of the Earth Ch. 1 Ch. 1 Week 2 Lab 1 – Filling Your Geoscience Toolbox Plate Tectonics Lab Manual, pp. Ch.
2 Week 3 Plate Tectonics Lab 2 – Plate Tectonics Lab Manual, pp. Week 4 Minerals Lab 4 – Mineral Properties, Identification, and Uses Ch. 3 Lab Manual, pp. Convex lenses are used in eyeglasses, projectors, microscopes, telescopes, and many more optical instruments.
In this lesson, learn what a convex. Don't show me this again. Welcome! This is one of over 2, courses on OCW. Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. MIT OpenCourseWare is a free & open publication of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the entire MIT curriculum..
No enrollment or registration. Chapter 15 and 16 Study Guide Answers. Section VOCABULARY REVIEW. 1. Evolution is the development of new types of. organisms from preexisting types of organisms.
over time. 2. Natural selection is a process in which organisms. best suited to their environment reproduce more. GEOL Applied geology study guide 1 Briefly summarize the scope of applied geology (as opposed to "academic" geology which worries about things like petrology, paleontology, tectonics or earth history).
2 What does a hydrogeologist do? (Ch. 26 in your book).