For although the revolution itself had its beginnings in ideas and conditions preceding that date, it is clear that the events of brought together and crystallized a multitude of hopes, fears, and desires into something visible, potent, and irreversible. To say that in reform becomes revolt is to record a positive change, a genuine starting point.
Surrounded by the shambolic ruins of World War II, human and structural, filmmakers had ready-made drama even in their backdrop, the atmosphere anxiety-charged and utterly uncertain. After twenty-one years under Mussolini, all bets were off as to what direction Italy would take.
In the war's aftermath, members of the Resistance including several of the neo-realist directors had to come to terms those who collaborated. Though unstated, this almost civil war-like tension fuels neo-realist cinema. Characteristics Ideologically, the characteristics of Italian neorealism were: Although they owed a debt to Renoir with whom both Luchino Visconti and Michelangelo Antonioni had workedthe neo-realists respected the entirety of the reality they filmed.
This meant occasionally showing scenes in real-time and always resisting the temptation to manipulate by editing. Scenes are shot on location, with no professional extras and often a largely unprofessional cast.
Set in rural Romanticism characteristics with realism or naturalism or working-class neighborhoods, the stories focus on everyday people, often children, with an emphasis on the unexceptional routines of ordinary life.
Neorealism preferred location shooting rather than studio work, as well as the grainy kind of photography associated with documentary newsreels. While it is true that, for a while, the film studios were unavailable after the war, neorealist directors shunned them primarily because they wanted to show what was going on in the streets and piazzas of Italy immediately after the war.
Contrary to the belief that explains on-location shooting by its supposed lower cost, such filming often cost much more than work in the more easily controlled studios; in the streets, it was never possible to predict lighting, weather, and the unforeseen occurrence of money-wasting disturbances.
Economic factors do, however, explain another characteristic of neorealist cinema - its almost universal practice of dubbing the sound track in post-production, rather than recording sounds on the supposedly 'authentic' locations.
Perhaps the most original characteristic of the new Italian realism in film was the brilliant use of nonprofessional actors by Rossellini, De Sica, and Visconti, though many of the films accepted as neorealist depended upon excellent performances by seasoned professional actors.
Some film historians have tended to portray neo-realism as an authentic movement with universally agreed-upon stylistic or thematic principles. In fact, Italian neorealist cinema represents a hybrid of traditional and more experimental techniques.
Moreover, political expediency often motivated interpretations of postwar neorealism that overlooked the important elements of continuity between realist films made during the Fascist era and realist films made by the neorealists.
The most influential critical appraisals of Italian neorealism today emphasize the fact that Italian neorealist cinema rested upon artifice as much as realism and established, in effect, its own particular realist conventions.
All too many early assessments of Italian neorealism focused lazily upon the formulaic statement that Italian neorealism meant no scripts, no actors, no studios, and no happy endings.
In the edition of his first resistance novel, Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno The Path to the Nest of Spiders,Italo Calvino — reminded his readers that Italian neorealism was never a school with widely shared theoretical principles.
Rather, it arose from a number of closely associated discoveries of an Italian popular culture that had traditionally been ignored by 'high' Italian culture. Neorealist film and literature replaced an official cinema and literature characterized by pompous rhetoric and a lack of interest in the quotidian and the commonplace.
Cesare Zavattini, who functions as a kind of godfather of the movement, stated: Breezy fare this is not, but it did significantly alter European filmmaking and eventually cinema around the world. Neo-realism reflected a new freedom in Italy and the willingness to pose provocative questions about what movies could do.
As director Giuseppe Bertolucci Bernardo's brother noted: Italian neorealist films stressed social themes the war, the resistance, poverty, unemployment ; they seemed to reject traditional Hollywood dramatic and cinematic conventions; they often privileged on-location shooting rather than studio work, as well as the documentary photographic style favored by many directors under the former regime; and they frequently but not always employed nonprofessional actors in original ways.
Film historians have unfortunately tended to speak of neo-realism as if it were an authentic movement with universally agreed-upon stylistic or thematic principles. While the controlling fiction of the best neorealist works was that they dealt with universal human problems, contemporary stories, and believable characters from everyday life, the best neorealist films never completely denied cinematic conventions, nor did they always totally reject Hollywood codes.
The basis for the fundamental change in cinematic history marked by Italian neorealism was less an agreement on a single, unified cinematic style than a common aspiration to view Italy without preconceptions and to employ a more honest, ethical, but no less poetic, cinematic language in the process.
These masterpieces by Rossellini, De Sica, and Visconti are indisputably major works of art that capture the spirit of postwar Italian culture and remain original contributions to film language. But with the exception of Rome, Open City, they were relatively unpopular within Italy and achieved success primarily among intellectuals and foreign critics.
The portrait of a desolate, poverty-stricken country outraged politicians anxious to prove that Italy was on the road to democracy and prosperity. The Catholic Church condemned many films for their anticlericalism and their portrayal of sex and working-class life.
Leftists attacked the films for their pessimism and lack of explicit political commitment". Audiences were more drawn to the American films that came flooding into Italy. The state undersecretary in charge of entertainment, Giulio Andreotti, found a way of slowing the advance of American films while also curbing the embarra ssing excesses of Neorealism.
The so-called Andreotti law, which went into effect innot only established import limits and screen quotas but also provided loans to production firms. To receive a loan, however, a government committee had to approve the script, and films with an apolitical slant were rewarded with larger sums.
Worse, a film could be denied an export license if it "slandered Italy". The Andreotti law created preproduction censorship.
This move coincided with a general drift away from the 'purer' Neorealism of the period from to ".Transcript of Romanticism vs. Naturalism. Literature William Wordsworth () Romanticism Romanticism dates back to the late 18th century.
There are two types of Romanticism naturalism Characteristics of Realism Realism Character is more important than action and plot; complex ethical choices are often the subject. Start studying characteristics of realism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Romanticism. Realism. - Characters may be “larger than life”-- e.g. Rip Van Winkle, Ichabod Crane, Brom Bones, Natty Bumppo, Ralph Hepdurn. Realism, in the arts, the accurate, detailed, unembellished depiction of nature or of contemporary leslutinsduphoenix.comm rejects imaginative idealization in favour of a close observation of outward appearances.
As such, realism in its broad sense has comprised many artistic currents in different civilizations. In the visual arts, for example, realism can be found in ancient Hellenistic Greek sculptures.
American Realism, Naturalism and Regionalism Historical Context The industrial revolution that took place at the end of the 19th century changed our country in remarkable ways.
People left rural homes for opportunities in urban cities. With the development of . Realism as a literary style may be best understood in comparison or contrast with Romanticism, or vice versa.
Like Romanticism, Realism is both a recurring style in literature and the name for a particular period of American literature in the late s-early s when writers intentionally developed this style in reaction against Romanticism.